SAFETY RULES

The link below leads to a PDF of the complete Safety Tests of the Pacific Area Civil War Reenactors.  All reenactors attending PACWR Member events must take and pass this test.

PACWR 2017 Safety Test

PDF of PACWR 2017 Safety Rules with recent changes in red

Following are the rules for the Pacific Area Civil War Reenactors

Preamble:

We, as Civil War Reenactors in the Greater Pacific Area, have come together to provide a common set of Safety Rules for the betterment of reenacting in the Historical Pacific Theater of the American Civil War.

Having brought forth this common safety standard, a uniformed safety practice can be found at each Civil War Event. The elimination of ambiguous understandings, different interpretations, and priorities of prior safety rules found among the different and independent Civil War Clubs on the West Coast has been foremost in the creation of this new standard. Great care has been taken in getting the best of each clubs safety rules and compiling all that applies to safety and workings found in reenacting to this document. Safety is first and foremost. Without a safety standard this hobby can easily be lost in history; with a standard we, all, can enjoy a long-lasting and safe experience of reenacting the Civil War.

Participating Organizations:
The following organizations have adopted and subscribed to these rules:

 

ACWA (American Civil War Association) Northern California

NCWA (National Civil War Association) Northern California

CHAS (California Historical Artillery Society) Northern California

RACW (Reenactors of the American Civil War) Northern California

CWRS (Civil War Reenactors Society) Central California

CCWR (Comstock Civil War Reenactors) Nevada

BBCWR (Battle Born Civil War Reenactors) Nevada

NCWV (Nevada Civil War Volunteers) Nevada

Rule book and safety test up dated and voted in August, 2016

YARDS CONVERTED TO FEET 10 YARDS = 30 FEET
YARDS CONVERTED TO FEET 20 YARDS = 60 FEET
Up dated 2/25/17

 

Memorandum of Understanding

The intent of PACWR is to form an association of Civil War Reenactment Clubs, who retain their Independence, to present a united effort to achieve the following goal:
“To promote a higher state of safety awareness, the Organization will formulate safety rules”

  1. Each Member Organization of PACWR is recognized as an Independent and autonomous corporation that are governed by its own Board of Directors and its members. As such, membership in PACWR is voluntary and is subject to the Member Corporations’ ratification, agreement and cooperation. Agreement to, ratification of, and willing participation in the rules, agreements and cooperation in PACWR in no way constitute any attempt by PACWR to subvert or impose any undue influence or control over any Member Corporation.
  2. PACWR recognizes that all Members have sovereign control over their sponsored events
  3. PACWR is established as a combined group of m embers that agree to establish a set of Safety rules, adhered to by all members, for the common good and safety of their membership at all Civil War Events sponsored and conducted by the members, and to otherwise further and promote the interests of Civil War reenacting.

To this end, members agree to abide by the Safety rules established by the representatives of the members; agree to support either in person or by establishment of a publication of scheduled events in their respective newsletters; and extend reciprocal membership to members upon written ratification by the Board of Directors of each Member Corporation and with written communication of same to the PACWR governing Board once a year, at the meeting to be held as soon as possible after the first of each Calendar year.

Mission Statement:

All Pacific Area Civil War Reenactors members are independent Corporations that own autonomous activities. All Member Corporations agree and covenant themselves to:

  1. Agree to the current Pacific Area Civil War Reenactors safety rules and tests governing reenactment events.
  2. Agree to use Pacific Area Civil War Reenactors waiver of liability forms.
  3. Agree to use best efforts not to establish competing events on the same weekend another member corporation is holding its events.
    Maintain all membership qualifications as outlined in minutes of March 24, 2007.

 

Membership:

  1. Membership in PACWR is limited to those Corporations that are recognized as a not-for-profit Corporation under the Internal Revenue Code Section 501(c) 3.
  2. Each Member must have its own liability insurance policy in which it is named as a sponsor of the event.
  3. Each Member must by itself, or in concert with other Corporations, present a reenactment        event at least once during a calendar year.
  4. Each Member must agree to reciprocal membership status of individual reenactors for            other members in PACWR.

4.1 Reciprocal recognition of participating individual reenactors at events presented by members with respect to waiving fees applicable to guest and recognition of having taken and passed the required safety tests, if so indicated on the individual’s membership card.

  1. Each member agrees to adopt the safety rules promulgated by PACWR and communicate the same in writing once a year to the PACWR Governing Board.

5.1 The Safety rules are meant to be the Minimum accepted Safety rules at all events sponsored by and facilitated by PACWR members and do not in any way constitute the only rules at a specific event.

5.2 PACWR recognizes that minimum safety rules are meant as basic accepted rules ratified by the Governing Board of PACWR, and this in no way is meant to construe that a member cannot enforce more stringent rules based on circumstances out of their control (i.e. site owners requirements, community laws, state laws, federal laws, common sense, etc.).

5.3 If additional rules are to be imposed by the sponsoring member, they will to the best of their ability make the same known to the other members on a timely basis, as soon as same is known to them.

  1. Each member must agree, to the best of their ability, to attempt to abide by the event calendar established by PACWR, and to refrain from scheduling competing events on the same date as another member and in the same geographical area (i.e. Northern California, Central California, Southern California) if avoidable.

6.1 This in no way is meant to mean that should an event site be unusable due to no fault of the hosting event Corporation (e.g. inclement weather or circumstances beyond the control of the Event Organizer) that an alternative date or site should not be used for the good of said Corporation.

  1. 7. Each Member will, each calendar year submit to the Governing Board of PACWR a written communication of their respective Corporation’s intent to be a member of PACWR for the ensuing year, and agree to abide by the Rules of Membership in PACWR.

 

Rules for Soliciting Membership in PACWR

  1. Each member petitioning membership in PACWR must submit a copy of a letter of determination as a not-for-profit Corporation from the Internal Revenue Service; Proof of Insurance (subject to the same criteria as Members); a letter from the petitioning Corporation’s Board of Directors requesting to join PACWR; a copy of their proposed event schedule for the ensuing calendar year; 45 days prior to a scheduled meeting of PACWR members.
  2. Each member petitioning membership in PACWR must agree in writing to the adoption of the Safety Rules established by PACWR, and to requirements of membership. This agreement must be in the form of a letter of intent and agreement signed by the petitioning Corporations Board of Directors.
  3. Petitioned Membership is subject to a 2/3(3) majority vote of the members. This vote is to be a secret ballot conducted in closed session of the PACWR Governing Board, and is subject to one vote per member.
  4. Proxy voting is permitted by a member in the form of a written document only, received by the current Chairman by at least 5 days prior to the scheduled meeting of PACWR, and signed by the authorized representative of the member. This proxy may be rescinded only by the submitting member in person.
    • Proxies submitted less than five (5) days prior at the meeting may be approved by a simple majority present.

 

 

Sanctions against members not in compliance with the membership Rules:

  1. Member Corporations that are believed not to be in compliance with the Memorandum of Understanding shall be required to show cause as to why they should not be subject to sanctions at either a regular or special meeting called as such.
  2. Members found to not be compliance with or in violation of the PACWR general rules will suffer the following sanctions of other PACWR members:

2.1 Removal of their Events from the calendar of the official PACWR schedule of Events.

2.1 No reciprocal membership at PACWR scheduled events.

2.3 Termination of their membership in PACWR will be by a 2/3 vote of the Board of PACWR.

  1. Members that have been sanctioned will need to submit for consideration and vote, a request for reinstatement in PACWR subject to the rules for solicitation of new membership.

 Section 1 – General Safety

  1. All members and guest participants must read and have a working knowledge of the Safety Rules before participating in any reenacting event. Members and guests are personally responsible for this. It is, also, the responsibility of the commanders (military and civilian) and their subordinates, to instruct those under their command in these rules and to enforce them at all times.
  2. Hazardous conduct on or off the field is prohibited.
  3. There are to be no unattended fires at any time. Water buckets and/or camouflaged fire extinguishers are to be maintained near open fires at all times. A safety area of 10 feet is required between any fire and tents (this does not apply to fires built under flies during the rain; soaked canvas does not burn.
  4. Hoop skirts need a minimum of 10 feet between open fires and persons, if a hoopskirt does catch on fire the person should “Yell or Shout” for help while dropping to the ground and pat or smother the fire out.
  5. Members of the public may not enter any member’s tent, unless by express invitation of the owner.
  6. Rowdiness, abusive language or public drunkenness will not be tolerated at any time. Unit Commanders are responsible for all unit members – military and civilian.
  7. No consumption of alcohol during public hours.
  8. No illegal substances at any time; violations will be referred to the local law enforcement agency.
  9. Spectators will only handle weapons in controlled, demonstration scenarios. The weapon being demonstrated is never to leave the sight of its owner. Weapons will only be handled by minors with the parent’s approval and only when parent or guardian is present. All weapons so used must be unloaded and in a fully safe condition. Handling of weapons, caps, ammunition or powder by spectators or noncombatant minors for any reason other than that described above is strictly prohibited.
  10. ALL animals must be restrained for their safety and the safety of other individuals and/or animals in the area. Any animal and its owner may be asked to leave by the event coordinator if animal remains unrestrained. Animals must be allowed by the Host Club and Site Host.
  1. Smoking or open flame is prohibited during the following times: –
    • While handling powder in any form;
    • Within the artillery powder magazine Safety Zone; and after battles until all weapons and cartridges have been secured.
    • When powder boxes are in evidence, on or off the battlefield.
    • After battles until all weapons and cartridges have been secured,
  1. To avoid unnecessary conflict, at no time will a member pick up another members weapon without permission from such member. The exception is when the member retrieving the weapon has good faith and reasonable belief that the owner has “lost” the weapon. For purposes of interpreting this rule, cannon implements are weapons.\
  2. Firearms and powder supplies will never be out of possession, sight or control. To prevent access before, during and after battles or demonstrations, firearms, ammunition, caps and powder supplies will be guarded to prevent theft, unauthorized tampering, personal injury and/or damage to the explosives.
  3. The possession of live ammunition, either period or modern and/or the possession of modern weapons in camp are prohibited, except as may be possessed by sworn peace officers or those retired with current carry permits.
  4. Weapon firing or clearing of weapons outside of the battlefield must be authorized and supervised by a member of the unit leadership. Prior to clearing weapon, make sure you have a 10 yard/30 feet safety distance from any general camp area or spectator area and 20 yards/sixty feet from any picket lines and give the alarm “fire in the hole, or firing” 3 times. Indiscriminate firing of weapons is not permitted. The exception to this rule is where weapons are being cleared on order in formation.
  5. A parent or guardian is responsible for the supervision of the minor(s) under his or her care throughout the event and are subject to disciplinary action. The parent must sign a guardianship form and must be on file every year.
  6. Each unit will have available a small first aid kit for minor injuries.

Section 2 – Battlefield and Camp Safety & Security

Battlefield Safety Zones:

  1. A Safety Zone of 10 yards or 30 feet is required between or around:
    • Anyone carrying unsecured and/or live weapons, and the public;
    • Anyone carrying loaded weapons, and artillery ammunition boxes, limbers or caissons;
    • Artillery powder magazines, tents, structures or anyone not an authorized member of the artillery;

1.4 A loaded artillery piece, and persons standing to the side of the muzzle (except the gun’s crew);

1.5 Anyone firing weapons, and the person or persons the weapons are aimed at (if persons are within 10 yards/30 feet, weapons are fired straight up in the air).

1.6 The active area of the “battlefield” and any spectator or other public areas. All troops are prohibited in this area.

  1. A Safety Zone of 20 yards or sixty feet is required between or around:

2.1 Anyone firing weapons, and mounted persons the weapons are aimed at (if mounted persons are within 20 yards/Sixty feet, weapons are fired straight up in the air);

2.2 Anyone firing weapons, and mounted artillery pieces or wagons (weapons are not fired at all within this Safety Zone);

2.3 Anyone firing weapons, and equine picket lines;

2.4 A loaded artillery piece, and persons standing in front of the muzzle,

 

2.5 Artillery emplacements (guns and ammunition boxes), and the public.

 

Spectator Safety:

  1. The public is not allowed:
    • On the battlefield, during battle scenarios, this will include the time after engagement while troops are still present on the field;
    • On the battlefield between battle scenarios if live ground charges are present or demonstrations are being held;

1.3 In military camps during battle scenarios;

1.4 In the Civilian Town during battle scenarios unless the Town is declared open to the public;

1.5 In any member’s tent, unless by express invitation of the owner.

  1. The public is allowed;

2.1 On the field immediately following battle scenarios only if they are part of approved tours of the field guided by Event Host members.

  1. The host site event organizers and the Safety Coordinator are responsible for the marking and placement of battlefield spectator barriers.

Additional Battlefield Safety:

  1. Barriers are patrolled by Provost Guards or Safety Team members during all battlefield operations.
  2. All Provost Guards or Safety Team members will be courteous but firm when requesting spectators or guests to relocate to a designated spectator area.
  3. Spectators not cooperating with Provost Guards or Safety Team members will be referred to the host site organizers for removal, or to the police for arrest and prosecution.
  4. Provost Guards or Safety Team members also patrol the Civilian Town and Army Camps during battles.
  5. Members are not allowed in the military camps during battle scenarios unless they are wearing period clothing.
  6. “Mounted” vehicles– artillery pieces, limbers, caissons or wagons, drawn by horses, mules or oxen must always have a clear route off the battlefield in case of an emergency.
  7. Troops attempting to “capture” such vehicles on the battlefield and during a battle will leave at least one open avenue for the animals to move through in an emergency, and obey the safety instructions of the lead driver of the vehicle.
  8. ! The call “Medic!” is for use in actual emergencies only! For living history, call “surgeon,” “stretcher bearer,” or other period terms.

 

Additional Safety Rules pertaining to the Battlefield:

  1. The minimum age to carry a weapon, service an artillery piece or ride with the cavalry is 14. No one under the age of 12 is allowed on the field, and no one under the age of 14 will carry or use a weapon of any type while in camp or on the field. (Rule amended on 3-21-09)
  2. Canteens are required for all those participating in battlefield activities.
  3. No Re-enactor may be armed with more than one long arm. No more than two revolvers may be carried by any re-enactor, and each must be in an appropriate holster. (Exceptions: Mounted Cavalry can have 4 pistols 2 in a pommel holster on the mount, two in holsters, Marine skirmishers and Zouaves may carry both a long arm and a pistol, officers and NCO’s will carry only 1 pistol; Sharpshooters carry 1 longarm, officers may carry either a pistol or a long arm but not both.) .) No pistols in belts, pockets, etc. Extra pistol cylinders may be carried on the field in an appropriate leather pouch.
  4. Cartridges shall be carried in cartridges boxes. Tompions shall be left in camp. No Wonder Wads shall ever be used.
  5. Hand-to-hand battle scenarios require the permission of the Army Commanders, and practice in the techniques by the participants. Before engaging in any hand to hand all weapons must be cleared and empty. Individuals who find themselves in unauthorized hand-to-hand combat will surrender, take a hit or run away, as appropriate. After the battle the individual instigating the unauthorized hand to hand will be reported to Brigade command.
  6. If a “Field Hospital” is established within the Battlefield area, then there will be no weapons fire within the 10 yard zone taken from the position of the Hospital fly or Tent.
  7. During battlefield activities, any member, observing a situation that is in violation of a safety rule, may be allowed to correct the situation immediately, otherwise, if not resolved, may call a cease fire, which shall remain in effect until the situation is corrected or resolved. Officers on the field may take reasonable steps to correct the situation without calling “Cease Fire” if it is likely to be quicker and safer. To make a cease fire obvious and quick the individual calling the cease fire due to safety will take his weapon (rifle or sword) and hold over their head longitudinally, using both hands. A signal that can be repeated by additional participants until the cease fire has been produced.
  8. Sharpshooters may fire from the prone position only when commanded to by their CO. Before firing the soldier will elevate his muzzle above any tall grass, sand or loose rocks (permission is withheld for fire danger, or if loose gravel may be kicked up by muzzle blast).
  9. A wounded party may never fire from the ground. A soldier should discharge his weapon before falling.
  10. No ramrods or bayonets shall be used on the battlefield. Rammers and bayonets shall be secured while on the battlefield.
  11. Non-combatant members are not allowed on the active battlefield with the exception of period military medical impressions, and war correspondents or scripted scenarios that have been approved by both brigade commanders.
  12. A combatant is anyone participating on the battle field during the battle scenarios with other line soldiers, cavalry, artillery, medical etc. whether with or without a weapon.
  13. All minors under the age of 17 are required to wear earplugs while on the battlefield. (Added 3/7/15)

 

Section 3 – Longarm Safety

  1. Weapons shall be clean and in good repair prior to use.
  2. All weapons will be field cleaned at the end of the day.
  3. Weapons will be loaded only when designated by your CO.
  4. Only FF or FFF grade Black Powder or Re-enactor Powder equivalent will be used (absolutely no black powder substitutes are allowed). High velocity muzzle loading propellant, such as Pyrodex, or similar product will not be substituted for the low velocity Black Powder as currently used today
  5. At no time will ramrods or bayonets be drawn on the field.
  6. Long arm cartridges for muzzle loading weapons must be made of paper, and tied with string if desired but no staples, tape, or glue or other methods of securing the cartridge are used unless they conform to the civil war period. They will be made prior to battle and will contain no more than 70 75 grains of black powder for 54 to 58 cal weapons, 90 grains for 69 cal weapons or 130 grains for 10 gauge shotguns. These loads are the maximum allowed and should not be regarded as a suggested load for the weapon size.
  7. Powder horns, flasks or other free loading devices are not allowed on the battlefield.
  8. When loading a muzzle loaded Longarm, only the powder will be placed in the barrel, no paper. Exception is when cigarette paper or equivalent is used for breech-loading shoulder arms.”
  9. When discharging a weapon inside the minimum safety distance, the weapon will be discharged straight up at a right angle to the ground.
  10. Carbine and other shoulder arm cartridges conform to Civil War specifications. Hard-cased ammunition is sealed only with “crumbling” floral foam or Blue Painters Tape to cover open end
    of cartridge.
  11. Ramrods are allowed on the battlefield when securely attached to the long arm, and are not used in loading unless in controlled firing demonstrations. Paper cartridge wrappers will not be loaded in muzzle-loading longarms due to potential fire hazard.
  12. Longarms are reloaded on the battlefield only with prepared cartridges.

Section 4 – Pistol Safety

  1. Revolvers and other pistols of 36 cal. shall be loaded with no more than 15 grains of powder. Pistols of 44 cal. shall be loaded with no more than 30 grains of FFF powder only. These loads are the maximum allowed and should be not regarded as a suggested load for the weapon size.
  2. Single shot pistols may be loaded with 40 grains and will be treated as a long arm in other respects.
  3. Only dry material of the following can be utilized for loading pistols and revolvers: Cream of Wheat (Instant) or with “crumbling” floral foam; all other wadding and grease is prohibited. A thin film of Bore Butter or Gun Grease may only be applied to the bottom of the cylinder to assist in preventing chain fires.
  4. Pistols are reloaded on the battlefield only with prepared cartridges or spare cylinders.
  5. Powder horns, flasks or other free loading devices are not allowed on the battlefield.
  6. Re-enactors using revolvers may carry extra cylinders provided the cylinders are pre-loaded, and securely carried in a leather pouch designed specifically for this function.
  7. Minimum distance for aimed pistol fire is 20 yards/ 60 Feet.
  8. All pistols are carried in a holster, whether loaded or not. Carrying pistols in waistbands or belts is prohibited.
  9. Pistols are considered secured if they are carried in a holster with the flap closed, or a loop over the hammer.
  10. Pistols are loaded on orders of the unit commander, and on these orders, pistols may be loaded prior to battle scenarios.
  11. Orders may also be given to reload automatically during battle scenarios.
  12. Cylinders shall be loaded as follows:

12.1 Charge all chambers with black powder and ran tight.
12.2 Place Floral Foam in each chamber and ram down foam, or fill remainder of each chamber with Cream of Wheat rammed down tight.
12.3 Completely seal each Floral Foam loaded chamber.
12.4 Percussion caps are not applied to revolver cylinders until the chambers are loaded.

 

  1. Pistols shall either be discharged at the end of a battle or have the caps removed and the pistol secured.

 

Section 5 – Bladed Weapons

 

  1. Steel bayonets may be fixed for parade, guard duty, arms inspection, stacking arms, drill, digging in, or other non-battle scenarios, at the direction of the officers.
  2. Bayonets will be fixed only at the order of the field commanders (except for public demonstration). Metal bayonets will never be drawn on the battlefield.
  3. During battles, only “non-lethal” (plastic) bayonets are fixed, and only on the orders of field commanders for use in fully choreographed and planned scenarios. Companies participating in such scenarios carry only non- lethal bayonets onto the field for battle, and commanders of such companies inspect their men prior to battle to ensure that steel bayonets are not carried.
  4. Swords may be drawn only by officers or at the direction of the cavalry or artillery officers on each side.
  5. Knives shall not be drawn on the field and will be tied or otherwise secured to their sheaths.
  6. Except as otherwise noted in this section, bladed weapons shall not be either drawn or used on the battlefield and must be secured in the scabbard or sheath.
  7. Saber (In Cavalry engagements) never engage Infantry.
  8. Saber, (when in use) may never use excessive force to attempt to bend opponent’s blade.
  9. When Sabers are in use, the tip of the blade must always be elevated above the hilt by approximately a 45 degree angle.
  10. When Sabers are in use, no thrust or swings will be made near the rear quarter of the mount.

 

Section 6 – Artillery Safety

This applies to both large artillery pieces and mortars.

  1. Muzzle loading artillery pieces are to be manned by a crew of at least 4, one of who is “Chief-of-Piece / Gunner”, who has been trained in the proper operation of the gun which they are operating.
  2. Breech loading artillery pieces are to be manned by a crew of at least 3 (three), one of who is “Chief-of- Piece / Gunner”, who has been trained in the proper operation of the gun they are in charge of.
  3. All artillery shall have the proper equipment and be in good repair.
  4. Each piece is to be inspected, by the senior artillery officer present, or their designee, prior to use at an event, for broken or loose hardware, cracked or damaged wood, wheel alignment and wheel attachments straight and secure (no wobbling). Determination of suitability shall be the responsibility of the senior artillery officer.
  5. The senior artillery officer must approve artillery before being placed on the field.
  6. No material is loaded that, when fired, passes out of the Safety Zone, including the foil that wraps the charges.
  7. An artillery ammunition box, with a self-closing, hinged lid. Artillery ammunition boxes containing black powder are constantly manned when unlocked, with lid closed when in battery position (open lid standing between the piece and the open box). The lid of the ammunition box is kept closed, except for loading the box, inspection, or the removal of a charge. Munitions boxes will be at least 10 yards to the rear of the cannon and 20 yards/Sixty Feet from the nearest public.
  8. When not in use the Munitions Box is to be stored in a safe and secured area keeping with all governmental regulations governing black powder storage.
  9. Ammunition boxes not in use are locked and removed to a secured storage area.
  10. Powder magazines are marked with signs, and the Safety Zones surrounding them are marked off with ropes and red flags.
  11. The placement of the artillery is the responsibility of the senior artillery officer.
  12. The safety zone for artillery will be 10 yards /30 Feet to the sides and rear and 20 yards to the front. Only artillery crews or authorized personnel are allowed within the safety area when the gun is loaded or the munitions box is opened.
  13. No gun shall be loaded when the safety zones are not clear. No gun shall be fired when the frontal safety zone is not clear.
  14. All artillery rounds shall be made of only black powder.
  15. Charges are made with F grade or cannon grade black powder only or equivalent, with the amount such that the muzzle blast will not extend past the Safety Zone. Such amounts are determined by bore diameter and tube length.
  16. If an artillery piece is loaded, the number one and two men will place the rammer or other implements of poles, in a vertical position on top of each gun wheel.
  17. Rammer (#1 man) always has thumbs pointing away from muzzle when ramming.
  18. Cannon are to be no closer than 5 yards (wheel to wheel), unless only volley fire, or fire by files, is to be used (all cannon to be loaded at one time).
  19. Remove “wounded” from safety zone before firing.
  20. Ammunition chest will be constructed from wood only, with nonferrous metal attachments (brass locks, hinges, hasps).
  21. A fire extinguisher will be kept at each battery (it may be kept under a burlap cover).

For Muzzle loading artillery, large artillery pieces and mortars, required equipment is:

  1. A priming pick or wire brush, for cleaning the vent, and opening a hole in the charge (priming pick);
  2. A leather thumbstall or leather glove, for stopping the vent;
  3. A worm, for clearing the tube of debris;

 

  1. A sponge-bucket, for holding water with which to sponge the bore;
  2. A wet sponge, for extinguishing sparks;
  3. A dry sponge, for drying the tube;
  4. A leather gunner’s haversack to carry the charge in from the ammunition box to the piece;
  5. A rammer, for seating the charge;
  6. Pliers or similar tools, for removing any friction primers or other materials that may jam in the vent;
  7. For guns using friction primers, a lanyard, or;
  8. For guns fired by fusing, or use of “quills,” a linstock.

11.1 Quills are made of material such as cardboard or paper straws; plastic straws may not be used because of the danger of blocking vent.

 

Blank charges for all artillery pieces consist of:

Note

*Charges are made with F grade or cannon grade black powder only, with the amount such that the muzzle blast will not extend past the Safety Zone. Such amounts are determined by bore diameter and tube length.

 

  1. Charges are made by:
    1 A cylinder of heavy-duty aluminum foil is formed of a diameter smaller than that of the bore.

    • Black powder rounds should be prepared in advance using two wraps of aluminum foil.
    • The cylinder is closed at one end, forming a “cup,” then filled with the black powder charge;
    • The open end is twisted closed, and the twisted end folded back against the charge.

NOTE!

No material is loaded that, when fired, passes out of the Safety Zone, including the foil that wraps the charges. Firing procedures are performed in a careful, deliberate manner. For all firing procedures, all body parts not needed during the procedure (for example: face, other hand) are kept away from the vent and muzzle at all times.


Firing procedures (with explanations) for muzzle loading artillery are, in order:

  1. Clean the Vent
  2. Stop the Vent
  3. Worm the Bore twice4
  4. Wet Sponge the Bore
  5. Dry Sponge the Bore6.
  6. Bring forward the charge from the ammunition box, in a gunner’s haversack;
  7. Insert the charge;

 

NOTE

At this point the piece is loaded and is not left unattended or moved

  1. As soon as the charge is placed in the muzzle of the piece, the other implement (sponge, for example) is placed upright-
    1 On the wheel hub or axle, for field artillery, providing the top of the rammer is at a minimum height of 7 feet.

    • On the top of the wheel rim, for pieces with smaller carriages or rammers, so that the top of the rammer is at a minimum height of 7 feet.
  2. Prime Charge

NOTE!

For pieces not mounted on field carriages with large-diameter wheels, pieces with short implements, or other pieces where the implement resting on the wheel does not attain a minimum height of 7 feet, either will be used to signal that the piece contains a charge:

  1. A short implement will be held up, off the ground, so that the minimum height of the top of

the implement is 7 feet, or;

  1. A separate staff of 7-foot minimum height is held next to the piece, resting on the ground.

 

In order to be clearly visible to those in front of the piece, outside the safety zone, the staff has a minimum diameter of 1 1/2 inches.


NOTE!

The “Chief-of-Piece/Gunner” ensures that everyone and everything are in safe order, and calls “Ready/ Clear Front!” before giving the order to fire.
Misfire procedures for muzzle loading artillery (both breech load and muzzle) are, in order:

  1. The rammer or other implement are held over the piece in an “X” as a warning signal that
    the piece is hazardous;
  2. After a minimum interval of 3 minutes, the piece is re-primed;

 

  1. The Chief-of-Piece ensures that everyone and everything are in safe order, and calls “Clear Front!” before giving the order to fire;

 

  1. If the second firing attempt fails, after a minimum interval of 3 minutes the vent and bore are flooded completely with water, and after a minimum interval of 3 minutes following flooding, worming clears the bore.

 

For breech loading artillery:

  1. “Chiefs-of-piece / Gunner” of Breach Loading Guns will have applicable equipment and

procedures approved by the respective artillery commander before being used in firing

demonstrations or a battle scenario.

 

  1. Whenever specific breech loading procedures are not required, muzzle loading procedures are used.
  2. No breech loading artillery piece may be accepted without the adoption of breech loading safety rules before being used in a firing demonstration or battle scenario.
    • The adopted rules may be specific to the model of piece being accepted.

For breech loading artillery, required equipment is:

  1. A wire brush for cleaning the breech
  2. Leather gloves for all cannon crew members
  3. A wet sponge to clean the tube
  4. Grease to lubricate the breech treads
  5. Pliers for removing the primer
  6. For guns using friction primers, a lanyard
  7. For guns using caps, caps and slam hammer and lanyard
  8. A runner mallet for opening a stuck breech
  9. A bucket with water for the wet sponge / brush or fires
  10. Rammers long enough to form an X over cannon in case of misfire or will be tall enough to signify a loaded cannon.

 

Firing procedures (with explanations) for breech loading artillery are, in order:

  1. Grease breech treads at the beginning of an engagement
  2. Open the breech
  3. Wet Sponge the breech
  4. Bring forward the charge from the ammunition box, in a gunner’s haversack;
  5. Insert the charge;
  6. Close the Breech

NOTE

At this point the piece is loaded and is not left unattended or moved (except for small adjustments or immediate safety reasons) until the piece is fired.

  1. As soon as the charge is placed in the breech of the piece, two implements are placed upright on the wheel hub or axle, for field artillery, providing the top of the rammer is at a minimum height of 7 feet.
  2. On the top of the wheel rim, for pieces with smaller carriages or rammers, so that the top of the rammer is at a minimum height of 7 feet.
  3. Prime Charge

NOTE!

The “Chief-of-Piece / Gunner” ensures that everyone and everything are in safe order, and calls “Ready / Clear Front!” before giving the order to fire.

Misfire procedures for Breech loading artillery are, in order:

  1. The rammer or other implements are held over the piece in an “X” as a warning signal that the piece is hazardous;
  2. After a minimum interval of 3 minutes, the piece is re-primed;
  3. The Chief-of-Piece ensures that everyone and everything are in safe order, and calls “Clear Front!” before giving the order to fire;

NOTE

For pieces not mounted on field carriages with large diameter wheels, pieces with short implements, or other pieces where the implement resting on the wheel does not attain a minimum height of 7 feet, either will be used to signal that the piece contains a charge:

  • A short implement will be held up, off the ground, so that the minimum height of the top of the implement is 7 feet or;
  • A separate staff of 7-foot minimum height is held next to the piece, resting on the ground. In order to be clearly visible to those in front of the piece, outside the safety zone, the staff has a minimum diameter of the 1 ½ inches.
  1. If the second firing attempt fails, after a minimum interval of 3 minutes remove the friction primer or cap, prime open breech, clean and dry and reload.

For Gatling Guns:

  1. The Gatling gun is to be manned by a minimum of 3 men, two who have been fully trained in the proper operation of the gun.
  2. The Gatling gun must have been manufactured by a known Gatling gun manufacturer. Determination of suitability shall be the responsibility of the senior artillery officer. The senior artillery officer must approve the Gatling gun before it is placed on the field.
  3. The Gatling gun munitions box will be next to the Gatling gun for ease of loading the magazine on the gun.
  4. The Gatling gun munitions box will be constantly manned when unlocked. When not in use the box will be stored in a safe and secured area.
  5. The placement of the Gatling gun is the responsibility of the senior Artillery officer and the gun owner.
  6. The safety zone for the Gatling gun is 15 feet to the sides and 20 feet to the front and rear. Only Gatling gun crew members or authorized personnel are allowed within the safety zone when the gun is loaded on the munitions box is open.
  7. The Gatling gun shall not be loaded when the when the safety zones are not clear. The gun shall not be fired when the frontal safety zone is not clear.
  8. The Gatling gun blank will be a .45 Long colt brass case loaded with 30 grains of 3F (FFF) black powder with floral foam as wadding. The blank will be placed in the steel cylinder provided by the Gatling gun manufacturer.  Each black being loaded in the munitions box shall be inspected by the gun owner and the senior artillery officer.
  9. There shall be no hand to hand combat at the Gatling gun.
  10. No one shall touch the Gatling gun without the permission of the gun owner or his designated artillery representative.
  11. The host at a club event has the right to allow or disallow the use of Gatling guns on the field.

To remove ammunition from the Gatling gun:

  1. Call for a cease fire;
  2. Twist the locking screw closed;
  3. Remove the magazine;
  4. Open the top receiver;
  5. Remove the two love rounds in the receiver with a magnetic tool.

Misfire Procedures for the Gatling gun are (in order):

  1. Call for a cease fire;
  2. Cross the rammers over the barrel of the gun;
  3. Twist the locking screw closed;
  4. Remove the magazine;
  5. Open the top receiver;
  6. Remove the two rounds in the receiver with a magnetic tool;
  7. Wait 3 minutes before reloading.

 

Section 7 – Equine Safety

The Host club’s Equine Safety Officer will be responsible for Mounts.

An Equine Safety Officer (ESO) must have experience with both stock* and reenactments.
*The term “stock” includes: horses, mules, ponies and donkeys (Ponies are not allowed on the battlefield, they can only be used in a working i.e. pulling a cart) scenario.
Civilian reenactors with stock will report to whichever (ESO) seems appropriate. They are subject to the same rules and testing requirements as any other mounted reenactors.

1. Horsemen and stock in combat scenarios must honor all of the safety zones contained     within the Battlefield area.

  1. All riders and mounts must pass the Equine Safety Test and General Test. They will be tested by the equine safety officer of each branch of the organization or their designee for their riding ability. It should be noted that each mount to be used by a member must be tested individually for that rider.
  1. All horses must be tested with firearms and cannon on the battlefield. This includes use of mounts at events before and after public hours. All stock at events must be accepting of small arms and artillery fire. Stock that reacts poorly shall be removed from event.
  2. Horses and mules must have safe and serviceable tack and shoes (if shod) and be in sound health. All tack and shoes will be inspected for serviceability by company commanders and owners/riders and must be checked and finalized by the host clubs (ESO).
  3. Surcingles are required on military and civilian single-billeted saddles, except artillery team valise saddles.
  4. Horses may only be touched or handled by the owner or by persons allowed by the owner to do so.
  5. Those in charge of picketed horses or mules ensure that members of the public approach the animals from the front or side only, not from the rear, and only with permission.
  6. There will be no fighting or discharging of firearms within 20 yards/Sixty Feet of picketing areas when in use.
  7. The (ESO) of the host club will be responsible for the placement of horse picketing areas. Stock when not in use, are tied to a picket line, or other secure objects, kept in sturdy corrals or pens, or tied to picket pins with lariats. If on picket pins, stock secured to them are always at least 40 feet away from tents, tables, etc.
  8. Stable guards, or owners, keep watch on picketed stock throughout public hours.
  9. The picket line shall be kept taut and stock will be securely tied to the picket line in such way they cannot get tangled.
  10. Management of animals after public hours is at the discretion of the Mounted Unit Commanders
  11. For members with horses or mules not in a mounted unit, the Army Commanders or Civilian Corps Coordinator/Mayor may delegate responsibility (e.g. to the owner or to a mounted Unit Commander) if the MCC or ESO is not present.
  12. Horses and mules must be ridden at a walk in camp streets and when entering the battlefield via avenues through the public. Avoid tent streets.
  13. Horses and mules are not intentionally spooked or stampeded. All reasonable measures will be made to prevent such occurrences.
  14. Each mounted cavalry unit will have at least one designated ESO.
  15. Mounts are not to be used as weapons. No pushing against dismounted Cavalry or infantry
  16. If necessary to pursue runaway stock unless instructed to by a company commander; in such an event pursuing riders shall circle wide to get ahead of runaway stock and not pursue from behind.
  17. To capture an artillery piece or hitch team, cavalry must have a previously-agreed on scenario or approval from the chief of piece and stock cannot approach within 20 feet of the piece.
  18. For the sake of safety, mounted cavalrymen should only take hits as wounds, so as to retain control of their mounts.
  19. In matters of horse safety, the final say with the ESO and company commander, in that order. Anyone in a mounted unit, its camp, or in the vicinity of stock, comes under this jurisdiction.

Section 8 – Spectator Safety

  1. At no time shall any weapon be pointed at a spectator who is closer than 20 yards/60 Feet away.
  2. No weapon will be fired within 10 yards/30 Feet of a spectator.
  3. If, at any time, a spectator enters the battle area a cease-fire will be called by any member
    observing the action. The cease-fire will be maintained until the spectator is removed from the battlefield (see cease-fire above).
  4. Individuals assigned to provost have absolute authority to call cease-fire and redirect soldiers or units that are positioned too close to the crowd.
  5. The host event site and/or Board shall be responsible for the placement of spectator viewing areas. These shall be patrolled by readily visible “guards” to keep the public in proper place while battlefield operations are going on.
  6. All safety members assigned to safety activities involving spectators and guests will use utmost courtesy when requesting that spectators or guests relocate to a designated spectator area. Any abusive attitude or language is prohibited.
  7. The provost will have the battlefield cleared of spectators a minimum of 10 minutes before a battle.
  8. The Safety Committee shall consist of the provost marshal of each Brigade and a
    representative from the Noncombatant Corps. This committee shall coordinate all safety guard responsibilities.
  9. The Program Announcer, if any present, shall remind spectators of safety precautions before each battle.

Section 9 – Ground Charge Procedures

  1. Ground charges may be marked by a white chalk or flour circle (will be determined by the local fire Authority), or new straw and marked with a further 10-foot diameter circle of the same. Only ground charge “staff” is to enter the 10-foot safety zones around ground charges.
  2. Ground charges will not be of greater than four (4) ounces of black powder with a recommended charge of two (2) ounces, and shall be placed only in containers designed to withstand repeated detonation of such a charge. Materials used must meet with Host Event Member Board approval before added to the mixture, such as peat moss.
  3. Ground charges shall only be used in scenarios where placement and safety of charges have been reviewed by the senior member of the ground charge staff and the senior artillery officers and the commanders of both armies and senior safety personnel have been briefed as to charge location and use scenarios.
  4. Ground charges must be electrically activated only and so wired and packed as to prevent
    discharge by any other means.
  5. The ground charge control box will be inactive and shall not be handled when placing charges.
  6. Only staff members authorized by both brigade commanders and a Board member shall handle ground charges, wiring or control boxes, whether such items are active or inactive at the time.
  7. No tripping of ground charges by foot controls. Only by control box with an approved
    staff member in attendance at all times during the planned battle scenario where they are used.
  8. The brigade commanders of both armies along with the senior staff member shall submit to the Board necessary equipment and loading procedures for ground charges.

Section 10 –Safety Test

  1. The Army Commanders and Civilian Corps Coordinator/Mayor are responsible for the oversight of the Club’s Safety program. Under the guidance of these individuals, the Unit Commanders are responsible for “working knowledge” of administering Safety Tests
  2. The purpose of the tests is to show that members have an understanding of the Safety Rules, with the aim of preventing accidents.
  3. Tests cover specific safety areas, and include:
    1 General safety, including provost line duty.
    3.2 Weapons safety, specific to weapons type, for those members using weapons.
    3.3 Artillery safety, for all forms of artillery.
    3.4 Equine safety, for those riding, driving vehicles, or using horses or mules for other purposes.

Note:

The equine safety test determines that those riding, driving, plowing, etc. have the basic skills to handle and control animals, and the tests are specific to such use. Equine tests are administered by the Equine Safety Officer. Horses and mules are certified as safe for use by the equine safety test.

  1. Tests have written questions and an answer key, but may be given orally, or ask for demonstrations of safety knowledge.
    1 Unit Commanders sign passed tests; they determine passing grades, and may pass a member with restrictions.
    4.2 Members need to take the appropriate test before participating on the battlefield, and to take whatever tests are appropriate for whatever battlefield function is performed. For example, an infantryman needs to pass the test appropriate to artillery before participating as a member of an artillery gun crew. Civilian Corps members need to pass the appropriate test during their first event of participation.
    4.3 Minors age 14 or over take the appropriate Safety Test.

NOTE!

The Club Secretary keeps signed copies of the tests, and records the month and year passed for the members’ tests for the database and membership cards.

The test is retaken only if:

  1. Requested by the Unit Commander, for cause;
  2. Membership is not renewed, or the member does not attend any events, for a year or more;
  3. The member is found in violation of a Safety Rule.
  4. Visiting reenactors (a non-member club that hasn’t elected these safety rules and procedures) read the Safety Rules and acknowledge that they have by their signature, but are required to take the Safety Test only at the discretion of the Army Commanders or Civilian Corps Commander, Coordinator/Mayor.

 

 

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